betway88必威 > 学习必威 > 2016考研英语:考研必背的基础语法知识点

原标题:2016考研英语:考研必背的基础语法知识点

浏览次数:128 时间:2019-11-04

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since 的不同之处在于,now that 引出的必须是一个新出现的事实或情况,如果依然如故,和过去相比并没有变化,则不用 now that 引导。

简单句只有一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

  1. 下列动词后面通常要用动词-ing形式作宾语。 enjoy, finish, stop, mind, suggest, practise, excuse(原 谅),appreciate, keep, risk(冒险), consider, admit, miss(错过), imagine, avoid(避免), delay(推迟) resist, cannot help等。

  2. 在need, want, require, be worth 等动词(短语)后面常用动词    -ing的主动形式表示被动意义。

a. that b. which c.who d. whom

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

① 在以下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should 动词原形”, should可省略。

Her favourite job is teaching English.→ What is her favourite job?   It is interesting to read such a story. → How is it to read such a story?

  1. Couldyou please keep the windows______? It’s so hot in the room.

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  只有勤奋、正直,一个人在生活中才能成功。 

三。复习要点

(1) He will succeed because he is in earnest.

whose

  1. 宾语从句:一般疑问句做宾语,引入if或whether

定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句的作用,同时在从句中又充当句子成分。

(三)Ving形式作主语 Ving形式具有动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词作用,可作主语。   Seeing is believing.眼见为实。

a. Though, but b. Because, so c. Though, d. Because,

  ⑴表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的过去式用were.   

② 非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。例如:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

二、 动词-ing形式作宾语。

whose

  语法知识点2

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,被动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词 过去分词;主动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词 现在分词。例如:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

若with结构作定语,则放在所修饰的名词之后,一般不用逗号隔开。

2)先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。

  4. If虚拟条件句

⑥在”介词 关系代词”结构中,关系代词只能用which和whom,且不能省略;如果介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可省略。例如:

我不喜欢他推荐的那些书。

1)Sheasked me, “Will you go to the cinema tomorrow?” (改为含宾语从句的复合句)

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的两个句子成为并列句。

④关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。例如:

和他争论没有用。

指人

  (2)在否定句或疑问句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

目的状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

无论他怎样努力也达不到目标。

  1. Theart club is for members only. You can’t go in ____you are a member.

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

③ since引导的时间状语从句多用一般过去时,而含有since从句的主句通常用现在完成时。例如:I haven’t met her since I left university。

With her hair gone,there could be no use for them. →(Her hair was gone.)

指物

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,可以表示请求,通常意味着说话人的不快或不满。

④ however与形容词、副词一起引导让步状语从句,句子采用陈述语序。例如:

  1. 在感官动词:

a. if b. so c. because d. until

  2.only引导的倒装句型:only 状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

⑤ 在the 比较级the 比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子仍然采用陈述语序。例如:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

have, get, send, leave等使役动词;

考点二 并列句

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗?

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

不要讲话。

  1. ----Iwon’t go to the party tomorrow.

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用并列连词 for 来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他今天没来,因为他生病了。

条件状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如果;只要),in case (万一); on condition that(如果), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

他停下来讲话。

修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词(关系代词和关系副词)。

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。例如:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完整)

如: Forgetting the past means betrayal.

  1. 关系代词特殊用法

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  只有那位女生知道怎样解那道题。

状语从句通常修饰主句的动词或整个句子,由从属连词引导,从属连词在从句中不充当句子成分。根据状语从句所表达的不同意义和功能,可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、比较、方式等状语从句。

1.as用作连词引导时间状语从句

whichthat省略

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

①当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②当先行词为物或整个句子时用which,可作主语或宾语;③先行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(with 名词 形容词,作伴随状语)

  1. 表示顺承关系的:and, not only…but also(不仅….而且….)等。

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。( 实际上已经浪费掉了。) 

定语从句分为限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句两种。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限制作用,而非限制性定语从句对先行词起补充和解释说明作用。通常限制性定语从句与先行词之间没有逗号,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开。

see, hear, look at, notice, observe, feel, find...等及使役动词:have, make, leave, keep, get...等后既可以用不定式也可以用Ving形式作宾语补足语。不定式(不带 to)表示过程或动作完成,Ving形式强调进行或当时情景。

  1. Mrs.Wang said that she ______(buy) a new car the next day.

  2. OurEnglish teacher told us that Christmas ________(be) on December 25.

  3. I’lltell you as soon as Kate ______(come) here.

  4. Couldyou tell me when your father ______(go) to New York? When he ______(go) there,we’llsee him off.

  5. Homewith Kids is one of the TV sitcoms that _______(make) us laugh again and again.

  3.定语从句 who引导的限定性定从。例句:

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以至于)。

例如: The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window. 老师批评了打破窗户的学生。

三、写出下列句子的同义词,每空一词。

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后面,作介词的宾语。

复合句中通常采用陈述语序。但是,在下面的几种情况下,状语从句多采用倒装语序:

例如:

  1. 宾语从句的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然我们把所有材料都准备好了,我们应该立刻开始这项新的工作。

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

as与when,while都是引导时间状语从句的从属连词,含义都是"当……的时候"。

Tom’ mother asked him_____________ _______ to try something new.

  2. 原因状语从句:since引导的

③ 在含有advice, order, demand, proposal(提议), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”,should可省略。

例如:

  1. Workhard, _____ you’ll fall behind your classmates.

  语法知识点1

由于连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因而从句中谓语不用疑问语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分,而连接词whether 和if(是否),在从句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。

(1)It was snowing when he arrived at the construction site.

  1. 宾语从句的引导词

  4.it形式宾语:和it 作形式主语一样,  我们常用it 来作形式宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情况尤其出现在带复合宾语的句子中。

  1. 名词性从句

一种用作名词,一种用作形容词。

考点四 状语从句

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。我们越害怕困难,困难就会变得越强大。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

(2) To shut your eyes to facts, as many of you do, is foolish.

Do you want to leave now ____ would yourather set off later?

  5.The 比较级,the 比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(3)从句中的语序

复合结构形式在句中主要作主语和宾语。作宾语时可用代词宾格或名词普通格加上动词的-ing形式。

作定语

  10. 不定式:不定式做目的状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第一个分句中过去完成时,第二个分句用一般过去时。例如:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

字不重要,看图~~

He oftenhelps others though although he is not rich.

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

并列句指把两个同等重要的句子连接在一起,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并列连词连接。

那就是建那座工厂的计划。

  1. 关系副词的基本用法。

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他表明他不会屈服。 

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

(with 名词 副词,作时间状语)

作宾语

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

They don”t have as many airplanes.

  1. I like the place ____ I canhave a good time.

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。) 

(3) It is 动词的过去分词 that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

as所表示的语气较强,引导的让步状语从句用倒装语序;

He is soyoung that he can’t go to school.à he is too young to go to school.

  6.状语从句省略(分词作状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从省略采用分词作状语。例句:

(6)状语从句被用于强调结构中

①用于the same...as结构中

  1. He ran so fast that we couldn’t catch upwith him.

  ⑵表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用had 过去分词。 

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态一般遵循以下的规律:

他们没有同样多的飞机。

a. assoon as b. so that c. before d. while

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 sb 表示“前者情况适用于后者”。例句:

② 用which而不用 that的情况:引导非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意思;用于介词 的后面 关系代词。例如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

I saw the lady crossing the street.

  1. The foreigners want to know howthey can learn Chinese kung fu well.

  文章来源:跨考教育[微博]

方式状语从句:as(正如;按照),as if/as though (好像)引导。

③用于"so adj. a/an n. (单数) as "结构中

I want to know when the train left.

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 私营化的优点在于能促进相互竞争。

He made a long speech, as we expected。

A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.

Jim’s mother________ let him watchTV_______ he finished his homework.

图片 1
扫码关注考研圈微信

按照句子的用途,英语的句子可分:陈述句(肯定、否定)、疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意)、祈使句、感叹句等四种。

而独立主格结构没有with或without引导,结构严密,名词前可用可不用修饰语。在句句法功能上,with结构可以作定语,独立主格结构则不能;独立主格结构通常在句中作状语,但也可以作主语,而with结构则不能。

2) 主 系 表. She is a teacher.

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

(1)定语从句的分类

我必须记着做这事。

a. where does he come from b. where is he from

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第一个分句采用部分倒装语序,即把第二个分句用陈述语序。例如:

例如:

1) 主 谓. He comes at last.

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

五、 动词-ing形式作状语

He worksharder in order that he can go to a good college.

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

原因状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

例如:

a. so b. or c. but d. for

  • 2015年考研国家线已公布
  • 34校2015考研复试线已公布
  • 2015全国各地高校调剂信息平台
  • 2015高校考研调剂信息发布方式
  • 2015年考研考生发布调剂意向区

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

我设法不去那里。

a. so that b. when c. because d. until

  You are a student, so am I。

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

⑥在love, hate, prefer等动词后用Ving形式或不定式无大的区别。但说话人有所指的时候,通常用不定式。

whichthat

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  我希望你安静一些。 

①当连词as, though连接让步状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词通常置于句首,构成部分倒装语序。例如:

⑤在短语devote to, look forward to, stick to, be used to, object to, thank you for, excuse me for, be (kept) busy, be worth, have difficulty / trouble / problem(in), have a good / wonderful / hard time(in), feel  like, get down to等后的动词也必须用Ving形式。

He is theonly one of the boys who________ (like) playing football.

  1.as...as.。。引导的比较级:(1)“as 形容词或副词原级 as 被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你一样学习努力。

比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 引导。

(小男孩明天将领路)He lay on the bed with the bedroom door shut.(寝室被关着)

引导词有though, although, even if, even though(尽管)等。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

高考对简单句、并列句和复合句的考查主要包括:句子的结构、连词的选择、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习惯用语和特殊的句式应用。

(with 名词 介词短语,作伴随状语。)

a. when b. while c. as d. since

  ⑶表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为“would/ should/ could/ might 动词原形”。在这种情况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外) 。 

① 句子种类两种分类法

  1. with结构与独立主格结构的关系: with结构属于独立主格结构,但在结构上,with结构由介词with或without引导,名词前有冠词、形容词、所有格代词或其它词类所修饰,结构较松散;

A. where did you get it B.where will you get it C. where you got it

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

c. as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的区别

5、She fell asleep with the light burning.

She ______ gave us a lot of advice, _______helped us to overcome difficulties.

  3.wish引导的虚拟语气:wish 后面的从句,当表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词形式为: 

② 表示“将来”意义的条件、时间和让步状语从句中多用一般现在时,而主句用一般将来时,被称为“主将从现”。例如:Tom won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

Object as you may, I’ll go.

This isthe reason_______ he is late today.

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能停止。 

更多高考信息请访问:高考频道 高考论坛 高考博客圈 高考贴吧

通常,宾语补足语与宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系,动词-ing形式作宾语补足语往往表示其动作在延续或进行中,用动词-ing作宾语补足语的常见的动词有:

Wear your coat, ____ you’ll catch a cold.

  语法知识点3

(1)状语从句的分类

我们听她唱了两首歌。

时间状语从句的引导词有when, before, after, until, assoon as, since, while, as 等

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could 动原
跟过去事实相反 had done would/should/might/could have done
跟将来事实相反 should 动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could 动原

表示选择关系常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

例如:

Thebuilding ___________is being built will be used as a hospital.(指物作主语)

⑤ 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 which”来代替。例如:

蓝色圈出部分~~

whowhomthat省略

①用that而不用 which的情况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有最高级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。例如:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

例如:

They said that they had already finished thework.

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的几个问题

纵然你读得快,你也不能这么快读完这本书。

比较状语从句由than, as…as…, not asso… as等引导。(比较级)

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

[注意]

Linda tried to become an excellentteacher, _____ at last she succeeded.

按照句子的结构可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

I am not so strong a man as I was.

地点状语从句通常由 where 引导。

第十六讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

  1. 表示动作(主动的、进行的动作)。

Pleasesay it in a loud voice so that everyone can hear it.

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

6.as作副词的用法 to the same degree or amount; equally "相同地","同样地"。

结果状语从句主要由so…that…, such…that…引导。

④在一些表示惊讶、意志等感情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”或“should have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。例如:

动词-ing形式作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、伴随状况、条件、结果等。

  1. Nowmany parents send their children to foreign countries, _____ they want them toget a better education.

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

独立主格在口语中不常用,往往由一个从句代替,而with结构较口语化,较常用。

They willhave a picnic unless it rains next Sunday.

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

例如:

(3) 引导特殊疑问句,要用原来的特殊疑问词。

(2)定语从句的关系代词和关系副词

二、动词ing形式的用法

a. But b. So c. And d. Or

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

He could not finish it without me to help him.

1.地点状语从句

按照在句中的功能,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句四种。

With him taken care of,we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)→(He was taken good care of.)

a. that b. which c. where d. when

让步状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

我看见那位妇人在过马路。

  1. Mr.Brown knows little Japanese, ______ he can’t understand the instructions on thebottle of the pills.

a. 当现行词为 the same 名词,such 名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。例如:

  1. 动词-ing形式前可以加when, while, though等从属连词,这可以视为状语从句的省略。

He is oneof the boys who ______ (like) playing football.

b. as可指代主句的内容,引导的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。例如: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

例如: With the boy leading the way,we found he house easily.

This shirt was _____ _______ ________ _______________ buy.

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

The flowers want watering.

并列句:两个或两个以上的简单句,用连词连接起来。

⑤ 在as if/though 引导的状语从句中,如果表示一种与事实相反夸张,从句多用一般过去时或过去完成时。例如:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

Then last night,I followed him here,and climbed in,sword in hand.

She asked me if whether she could join us.(whether…or not)

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

【注意】①admit, appreciate, avoid,consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, include, keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk, suggest, can’t help, can’t stand等动词后可以用Ving形式作宾语,但不能用不定式。

作主语

表示因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

这本书和我上周读的那本是一样。

  1. 结果状语从句

表示转折关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

We don’t allow smoking here. we don’t allow students to smoke.

(2) 引导一般疑问句用if或whether.

一。考纲要求

  1. with或without-名词/代词 形容词;

  2. with或without-名词/代词 副词;

  3. with或without-名词/代词 介词短语;

  4. with或without-名词/代词 动词不定式;

  5. with或without-名词/代词 分词。

  1. Thisis the most interesting book____ I’ve read before.

状语从句作为被强调部分用于强调结构时,一律用It is/was …that…,不能用when代替that。句子用陈述语序。注意:当强调Not until 时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再采用倒装语序。例如:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

但它们有区别

a. that b. which c. whered. when

二。命题导向

(1)as引导定语从句与其他词连用

a. open b. opens c. opened d. opening

②在insist(坚持), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(建议),recommend(建议,推荐), request(请求,要求), demand(要求),require(要求,需要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”, should可省略。

用作名词时,说明主语的内容,就此提问时,用what ;

  1. Benasked me ______ I had read the news in today’s newspaper.

本文由betway88必威发布于学习必威,转载请注明出处:2016考研英语:考研必背的基础语法知识点

关键词: betway88必威

上一篇:<h1>专家现场模拟:考研复试英语面试真的不难

下一篇:没有了